"Extract of letter of W. Devaynes, Governor of the English fort at Whydah, 22 [28] During Oyo's imperial period, the Are-Ona-Kakanfo personally commanded the army in the field on all campaigns. 2 mars 2009. Tous les sous-tribunaux d'Oyo avaient Ilari qui agissait à la fois comme des espions et des contribuables. It is one of the larger centres and probably the oldest town of the Yoruba people. Un témoignage de l'étendue de l'institution est le fait qu'il y avait (et il y a encore) des conseils Ogboni dans presque toutes les sous-tribunaux du Yorubaland. À Oyo la divinité Ogu était vénérée. L' Oyo Mesi et le culte Yoruba Earth connu sous le nom d' Ogboni ont maintenu le pouvoir de l' Oba sous contrôle. A loose confederation of Yoruba kingdoms in West Africa. Public Records Office, London, (PRO: T.70/1545). Ajaka a été restauré après la mort de Sango. Oranmiyan founded the Oyo nation after he had established the bini dynasty, making him the first Alaafin (ruler) of the Oyo kingdom. The tributary chiefs sometimes made war on other peoples to capture slaves for this purpose. Histoire de l'Afrique. After Oyo's return from exile, the post of Are-Ona-Kakanfo was established as the supreme military commander. Oyo became the southern emporium of the Trans-Saharan trade. En 1823, le Dahomey aurait attaqué des villages sous la protection d'Oyo pour les esclaves en raison de la forte demande pour eux. Oranyan, le premier oba (roi) d'Oyo, fut remplacé par Oba Ajaka, Alaafin d'Oyo. Il a également tenté d'amener l'Ijaye à protéger Oyo de l'ouest contre les Dahoméens. http://www.laits.utexas.edu/africa/2004/database/fasanya.html, licence Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Afonja took cause with Awole when the latter commanded him to attack Alaafin Abiodun's maternal home, Iwere-Ile. [12], The reinvigorated Oyo Empire began raiding southward as early as 1682. [18], With its cavalry, Oyo campaigned successfully in conquest and suppression over great distances. Oranmiyan was the first king and the founder of the Oyo empire. L'Empire d'Oyo, comme de nombreux empires avant lui, a utilisé à la fois des forces locales et tributaires pour étendre ses domaines. They set the cornerstones for all homosexuality and legal rape within the province Owo Empire is the rework of the original Kingdom of Owo after the democratic elections that lead to Sabatarge taking ownership… Le chef du conseil d'Oyo Mesi, le Bashorun, a consulté l' oracle Ifa avant la succession royale pour l'approbation des dieux. The Oyo Empire was not a hereditary monarchy, nor an absolute one. [1] It reached the height of its power in the 18th century. Les impôts sur le royaume du Dahomey rapportaient à eux seuls un montant estimé à 638 mille dollars américains par an. Afonja a exécuté l'ordre d'Awole et a limogé Apomu, mais au retour de l'armée de la campagne, il a marché sur la capitale Oyo-Ile (qui était elle-même un tabou), et a exigé qu'Awole abdique. Les Eso étaient dirigés par les Are-Ona-Kakanfo et étaient célèbres pour vivre selon un code guerrier comparable au dictum latin infra dignitatem . [11] Each province was supervised by a governor appointed directly by the Alaafin of Oyo. In 1728, the Oyo Empire invaded the Kingdom of Dahomey in a major campaign of its cavalry. There was also an entrenched military culture in Oyo where victory was obligatory and defeat carried the duty of committing suicide. Clapperton's party recorded passing numerous Oyo villages burned by the Fulani of Ilorin while Majotu had also sought the help of the English king and the Oba of Benin in putting down the Ilorin rebellion. La seconde couche de l'empire était composée des villes les plus proches d'Oyo-Ile, reconnues comme frères. These officials were known as the ilari or half-heads, because of the custom of shaving half of their heads and applying what was believed to be a magical substance into it. Fourthly, the Oyo Empire achieved social and cultural unity for Yorubaland by promoting a feeling of kinship based on a common language (Yoruba) and a common religion. Oyo entretenait une armée semi-permanente de soldats de cavalerie spécialisés appelés Eso , Esho ou, formellement, Eso d'Ikoyi . Taxes on the kingdom of Dahomey alone brought in an amount estimated at 638 thousand U.S. dollars a year. Son successeur, Kori, a réussi à conquérir le reste de ce que les historiens plus tard appelleraient le métropolite Oyo. In the actual working of the government, however, the Alaafin was an absolute monarch. La fondation de la ville d’Oyo-Ile, parfois appelée Old Oyo ou Katunga au centre nord de l’actuel Nigeria date du 10ème siècle environ. Il devait vivre dans une province frontalière de grande importance pour garder un œil sur l'ennemi et l'empêcher d'usurper le trône. Les affluents Egba et Egbado ont été autorisés, comme leurs homologues Yoruba, à se gouverner eux-mêmes. "Royal Gold Coast Gazette and Commercial Intelligencer" Cape coast, 1822-3, Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of rulers of the Yoruba state of Oyo, "http://www.laits.utexas.edu/africa/2004/database/fasanya.html". The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today Western and North central Nigeria.Established in the 15th century, the Oyo Empire grew to become one of the largest West African states. Oyo Empire and surrounding states, ca. Pendant plus d'un siècle, l'État Yoruba s'était développé aux dépens de ses voisins. [33] This contributed to Oyo's ability to consistently field a large force. [39] These were 70 junior war chiefs who were nominated by the Oyo Mesi and confirmed by the Alaafin of Oyo. Les événements qui ont conduit à la sécession d'Ilorin ont commencé en 1793. Peu de temps après la victoire de la guerre, Oranmiyan eut un fils, Ajuwon Ajaka; bien plus tard, Arabambi est né par la femme de Tapa ( Nupe ). [29] The Oyo Mesi spoke for the politicians while the Ogboni spoke for the people and were backed by the power of religion. For over a century, the Yoruba state had expanded at the expense of its neighbors. The Democratic Structure of Yoruba Political-Cultural Heritage. [33] Because its main geographic focus was north of the forest, Oyo enjoyed easier farming and thus a steady growth in population. Unlike other Yoruba states, which were located in the forest area, Oyo was situated in woodland savannah. [8] The Nupe sacked the capital, destroying Oyo as a regional power until the early 17th century. Established by Oranmiyan of the Yoruba people of West Africa, Oyo quickly grew to become one of the most powerful states in the Yoruba-speaking region. They re-established Oyo as more centralized and expansive than ever. On sait qu'au moins quelques fonctionnaires musulmans étaient détenus dans la métropole d'Oyo, et des hommes capables d'écrire et de calculer en arabe ont été signalés par des commerçants français en 1787. Oranyan made Oyo his new kingdom and became the first "oba" (meaning 'king' or 'ruler' in the Yoruba language) with the title of "Alaafin of Oyo" (Alaafin means 'owner of the palace' in Yoruba). Chief among the responsibilities of the Bashorun was the all important festival of Orun. Oyo Empire. Considered by the Yoruba to be a holy city and the legendary [10], The key to Yoruba rebuilding of Oyo was a stronger military and a more centralized government. Oyo a immédiatement exigé un énorme hommage du roi Gezo pour l'incursion non autorisée, à laquelle Gezo a envoyé son vice-roi brésilien, Chacha Francisco Félix de Sousa , à l'Alaafin à Oyo pour faire la paix. [11] Occasionally, tributary leaders would be ordered to attack neighbors even without the backing of the main imperial army. Elle deviendra progressivement un royaume, puis un empire. [13][36], Cavalry in highly developed societies such as Oyo was divided into light and heavy. The Oyo Empire grew to become the largest Yoruba state. It has increased due to the excellent organizational and administrative capacities of the … The Alaafin was required to take counsel from them whenever any important matter affecting the state occurred. Ade Ajayi and R. Smith: Yoruba Warfare and Professor Bolanle Awe: Oxford PH.D. thesis (1964) – “The Rise of the Ibadan Empire”. Established in the 14th century, the Oyo Empire grew to become one of the largest West African states encountered by pre-colonial explorers. [28], Since the Are-Ona-Kakanfo could not reside near the capital, arrangements had to be made for the latter's protection in case of emergency. Le chef des Ogboni, les Oluwo, avait le droit absolu d'accéder directement à l'Alaafin d'Oyo sur n'importe quelle question. . Their gunshots scared the Oyo cavalry horses and prevented their charging. Leurs coups de feu ont effrayé les chevaux de cavalerie Oyo et ont empêché leur chargement. Oyo City, too was basically converted to Islam. [25] The Oyo Mesi selected the Alaafin. La trahison de Gaha n'a pris fin qu'en 1774 sous le règne d'Alaafin Abiodun, le cinquième Alaafin qu'il a servi. 2nd ed. Search: Add your article Home Government Government by country Government of Benin List of rulers of the Yoruba state of Ketu . L' empire d'Oyo était un empire Yoruba de ce qui est aujourd'hui le Bénin et l'ouest du Nigeria (y compris la zone sud-ouest et la moitié ouest de la zone centre-nord). Le peuple a créé un gouvernement qui a établi son pouvoir sur un vaste empire. The Oyo Empire encouraged the Yoruba values, which are commonly referred to as omoluwabi values. According to Yoruba tradition, Oyo was founded by Oranmiyan, a son of Oduduwa, the deity who established the … Les Eso ont été nommés pour leurs compétences militaires sans égard au patrimoine, bien que des dynasties de facto d'Eso étaient également connues pour exister. The site is remembered as Ajaka. Ife was surpassed by the Oyo Empire as the dominant Yoruba military and political power between 1600 and 1800 AD. The Oyo Empire was a West African empire of what is today southwestern Nigeria.The empire was established by the Yoruba in the 15th century and grew to become one of the largest West African states encountered by colonial explorers. Dans sa partie orientale, l’ensemble yoruba était divisé en plusieurs royaumes « frères », … They are a set of unwritten commandments … By 1680, the Oyo Empire spanned over 150,000 square kilometers. The Yoruba allowed autonomy to the southeast of metropolitan Oyo, where the non-Yoruba areas could act as a buffer between Oyo and Imperial Benin. Awole a finalement commis un suicide rituel. Nigeria; Lien externe. Les pourparlers de paix ont finalement échoué et Oyo a ensuite attaqué le Dahomey. Environ 22% de la population vivait dans de grandes zones comptant plus de 100 000 habitants et plus de 50% vivaient dans des villes de 25 000 habitants ou plus. Cette zone, comme tous les États tributaires, jouissait d'une assez grande autonomie tant que les taxes étaient payées, que les commandes d'Oyo étaient strictement suivies et que l'accès aux marchés locaux était assuré aux marchands d'Oyo. Cette zone était habitée par les Egba et Egbado , et garantissait le commerce d'Oyo avec la côte. Oranmiyan founded the Oyo nation after he had established the bini dynasty, making him the first Alaafin (ruler) of the Oyo kingdom. Leurs titres liés au roi, tels que oba l'olu («le roi est suprême») ou madarikan («ne vous opposez pas à lui»). How the Ibadan Empire, which for all practical purposes succeeded the defunct Oyo Empire, has been scholarly traced in three works: Samuel Johnson: History of the Yorubas, J.F. Autour de la capitale se trouvait un grand mur de terre pour la défense avec 17 portes. Located in the savannah below the bend of the river Niger in the Bussa-Jebba region of southwest Nigeria, it achieved prominence during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries but collapsed and … Les villes contemporaines de premier plan incluent Ibadan , Osogbo et Ogbomoso , qui sont quelques-unes des grandes villes qui ont prospéré après l'effondrement du vieil Oyo. Les Are-Ona-Kakanfo ne pouvant résider à proximité de la capitale, des dispositions ont dû être prises pour la protection de cette dernière en cas d'urgence. [3] Oranyan's force was too small to make a successful attack, so he wandered the southern shore until reaching Bussa. Ils étaient considérés comme Ekeji Orisa, signifiant «député des dieux». [29] Aside from their duties in respect to the worship of the earth, they were responsible for judging any case dealing with the spilling of blood. Orangun Ajagunla d'Ila, le frère aîné d'Oranmiyan, a fait irruption avec ses hommes pour l'aider. [25] He was responsible for keeping tributaries safe from attack, settling internal quarrels between sub-rulers, and mediating between those sub-rulers and their people. Oyo empire conquered dahomey and part of Togo. Après la mort d'Awole, il y eut une course pour le trône par de nombreux prétendants; certains auraient passé moins de six mois sur le trône; il y eut aussi une période d'interrègne de près de vingt ans où les différentes factions ne purent se mettre d'accord sur un candidat. nécessaire]. It rose through the outstanding organizational skills of the Yoruba, wealth gained from trade and its powerful cavalry. [14], After the destruction of Oyo-Ile, the capital was moved further south, to Ago d'Oyo. [15] Light cavalry on smaller indigenous ponies was armed with throwing spears or bows. The Egba and Egbado tributaries were allowed, like their Yoruba counterparts, to rule themselves. Prominent contemporary cities include Ibadan, Osogbo, and Ogbomoso, which are some of the major cities that flourished after old Oyo's collapse.[53]. The oba (meaning 'king' in the Yoruba language) at Oyo, who was referred to as the Alaafin of Oyo (Alaafin means 'owner of the palace' in Yoruba), was the head of the empire and supreme overlord of the people. It rose through the outstanding organizational skills of the Yoruba, wealth gained from trade and its powerful cavalry. Ils constituaient le Conseil électoral et possédaient des pouvoirs législatifs. Oyo Empire was Yoruba empire located in the western part of the present day Nigeria. Si le conseil décidait de la désapprobation de l'Alaafin, le Bachorun présentait à l'Alaafin une calebasse vide, ou des œufs de perroquet, comme un signe qu'il devait se suicider. Les nouveaux alaafins d'Oyo étaient donc considérés comme étant nommés par les dieux. Ilé-Ifé est considérée comme la cité d'origine de tous les Yorubas [réf. Le oba (qui signifie `` roi '' en langue yoruba) à Oyo, qui était appelé Alaafin d'Oyo (Alaafin signifie `` propriétaire du palais '' en yoruba), était le chef de l'empire et le suzerain suprême du peuple. Les origines de l'empire Oyo se trouvent avec Oranyan (également connu sous le nom d'Oranmiyan), le dernier prince du royaume Yoruba d'Ile-Ife ( Ife ). Nous voudrions effectuer une description ici mais le site que vous consultez ne nous en laisse pas la possibilité. [15] There were drawbacks to this. Le roi portait le titre de Yalafin. Ces couches étaient le métropolite Oyo, le sud du Yorubaland, le couloir Egbado et Ajaland. He was not always closely related to his predecessor, although he did have to be descended from Oranmiyan, a son of Oduduwa, and to hail from the Ona Isokun ward (which is one of the three royal wards). The index of urbanization in 1950 was close to that of the United States, excluding Ilorin. Gaha, in his quest for absolute power, conspired with the Oyo Mesi and probably to some extent the Ogboni to force four successive Alaafins to commit ritual suicide after they had been presented with the symbolic parrot's eggs. Shehu Alimi, a Fulani chief who was the leader of the growing Muslim population in Oyo, also rose to power at this time. He governed in conjunction with a council of state known as Oyo Mesi . [30] The hundreds of Ilari were divided evenly between the sexes. Le site est connu sous le nom d' Ajaka . L'origine de la cavalerie est contestée; cependant, les Nupe , Borgu et Hausa des territoires voisins utilisaient également la cavalerie et pouvaient avoir la même source historique. A further cause was given in 1795, when Awole ordered Afonja to attack the market town of Apomu, a part of Ile-Ife. The Oyo Empire encouraged the Yoruba values, which are commonly referred to as omoluwabi values. [7] The next oba, Eguguojo, conquered nearly all of Yorubaland. [11] These tributary states were led by their own rulers, titled Obas,[23] who were confirmed by the Alaafin of Oyo. The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today western Nigeria, north central Nigeria and Western Republic of Benin.Established in the 15th century, the Oyo Empire grew to become one of the largest West African states. Up to this day, the Illorin traditional ruler is an emir, whereas in the rest of Yoruba towns the kings are called oba or baale (Baale or Baba Onile … [13] The alliance victory defined borders between the neighboring states. According to Wikipedia, the Oyo Empire was the Empire of Yoruba of what is now Western, northern central Nigeria and the northern part of the Fon kingdom in the present Benin Republic.Oyo was founded in the 15th century and became one of the largest West African kingdoms (states). New alaafins of Oyo were therefore seen as being appointed by the gods. the people reject you, the world rejects you and the gods reject you also). The military waited until the 19th century to adopt them. Oranyan followed the advice and founded Oyo where the serpent stopped. [14], Ajaland was the last layer added to the empire. Shortly after Oyo Empire expanded her influence westwards, capturing Port Novo and making Dahomey (present-day Benin Republic) a vassal state pay tributes of 40 guns and 400 loads of cowries and corals regularly to Oyo, of course after phases of wars that made Oyo army a dread to the Dahomeyans, Alafin (Emperor) Labisi appointed a new Basorun (Prime Minister). The Oyo Empire was one of the most politically important states in the entirety of Western Africa from the mid-7th to the late 18th century,[2] holding sway not only over most of the other kingdoms in Yorubaland, but also over nearby African states, notably the Fon Kingdom of Dahomey in the modern Republic of Benin to the west. L'Empire d'Oyo a été l'un des États les plus importants politiquement de toute l'Afrique de l'Ouest du milieu du 7e à la fin du 18e siècle, dominant non seulement la plupart des autres royaumes du Yorubaland , mais aussi les États africains voisins, notamment le Royaume Fon du Dahomey dans la République moderne du Bénin à l'ouest. Entre juin et octobre 1754 seulement, deux Alaafins avaient été forcés de se suicider par Gaha. [12] The Oyo often demanded tribute in slaves. [47] Awole eventually committed ritual suicide. L'importance des deux grandes structures (le palais et l'Oja Oba) signifiait l'importance du roi à Oyo. [49] Oyo immediately demanded a huge tribute from King Gezo for the unauthorized incursion, to which Gezo dispatched his Brazilian viceroy, Chacha Francisco Félix de Sousa, to the Alaafin at Oyo to make peace. The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire, and the Largest empire ever existed in West Africa, occupying most of what’s is today Southern Nigeria, expanding its territory to the nearby Republic of Benin. C'était le centre de l'empire, où les Yoruba parlaient le dialecte Oyo. Il y avait un haut degré de professionnalisme dans l'armée de l'empire d'Oyo. Gaha, dans sa quête du pouvoir absolu, a conspiré avec les Oyo Mesi et probablement dans une certaine mesure les Ogboni pour forcer quatre Alaafins successifs à se suicider rituellement après avoir reçu les œufs symboliques du perroquet. Ces nouveaux éléments avaient perdu la considération pour le bureau de l'Alaafin en raison des diverses querelles politiques et de l'absence d'une autorité centrale à l'époque; cette situation a finalement conduit Afonja à faire sécession d'Ilorin d'Oyo en 1817 avec l'aide des musulmans d'Oyo. Sur le chemin de la bataille, les frères se sont disputés et l'armée s'est séparée. The empire succeeded lle-lfe as the dominant kingdom in the area after 1700. [29] These officials were known as the ilari or half-heads, because of the custom of shaving half of their heads and applying what was believed to be a magical substance into them. Les membres juniors des Ilari accomplissaient des tâches subalternes, tandis que les seniors agissaient en tant que gardes ou parfois messagers de l'autre monde par sacrifice. Les chefs tributaires faisaient parfois la guerre à d'autres peuples pour capturer des esclaves à cette fin. Either way the royal family was devoted to The Spirits of Thunder (Jakuta) and War (Ogun). Oyo empire was a yoruba empire covering distance over the southwest zone and the western half of northcentral zone of the today Nigeria. Ile-Ife, town, Osun state, southwestern Nigeria. Abiodun a ensuite été assassiné par son propre fils Awole, qui est ensuite monté sur le trône de son père. [46] Afonja carried out Awole's order and sacked Apomu, but on the return of the army from the campaign he marched on the capital Oyo-Ile (which was itself a taboo), and demanded that Awole abdicate. À la fin de son expansion militaire, les frontières d'Oyo atteindraient la côte à environ 320 kilomètres (200 mi) au sud-ouest de sa capitale. [8] Oba Ofinran, Alaafin of Oyo, succeeded in regaining Oyo's original territory from the Nupe. À la fin du XVIe siècle, les États Ewe et Aja du Bénin moderne rendaient hommage à Oyo. Il a pris de la puissance travers ses compétences organisationnelles (inhérentes aux yoruba), la richesse acquise dans le commerce et sa puissante cavalerie. Afin d'éviter cet événement, il est devenu traditionnel que le prince héritier soit contraint de se suicider rituellement à la mort de son père. L'Ogboni était une société secrète très puissante composée d'hommes libres aristocratiques réputés pour leur âge, leur sagesse et leur importance dans les affaires religieuses et politiques. THE OYO EMPIRE. The Oyo Mesi developed as a check on the Alaafin's power, preventing the Alaafin from being an autocrat; they compelled many Alaafins to commit suicide during the 17th and 18th centuries.[32]. Ici, la religion yoruba est pratiquée comme dans tous les États yorubas. Les Alaafin d'Oyo ont nommé certains responsables religieux et gouvernementaux, qui étaient généralement des eunuques . Easley, Dr Larry. Established in the late 14th or early 15th century, the West African kingdom of Oyo grew into an empire that was dominant among the historical Yoruba states. [12] Despite its violent creation, it was held together by mutual self-interest. Known by the Ewe as Amedzofe, it is the more ancient ancestral home of the Ewe, Fon and other Gbe Vodoun groups prior to the expansion of the Oyo empire into their region around 10-1100 B.C Oranyan made an agreement with his brother to launch a punitive raid on their northern neighbors for insulting their father Oduduwa, the first Ooni of Ife. L' Oyo Mesi et le culte Yoruba Earth connu sous le nom d' Ogboni ont maintenu le pouvoir de l' Oba sous contrôle. [13] By the end of its military expansion, Oyo's borders would reach to the coast some 320 kilometres (200 mi) southwest of its capital. All Alaafins, due to the Yoruba belief that Ife was the spiritual home of the Yorubas, were previously made to swear an oath never to attack Ife. Pendant le règne d'Onigbogi, Oyo a subi des défaites militaires aux mains des Nupe dirigés par Tsoede. Un vestige de la monarchie continue d'exister en tant que l'un des États traditionnels du Nigéria contemporain. Les Yoruba et leurs voisins utilisaient des javelots à triple barbelé qui pouvaient être lancés avec précision à environ 30 pas. [38] The Yoruba and their neighbours used triple barbed javelins which could be thrown accurately from about 30 paces.[13]. Like other renowned world empires, the empire reached the zenith of its fame through trade and cavalry of the king. During the 17th century, Oyo began a long stretch of growth, becoming a major empire. Empire, major political unit in which the metropolis, or single sovereign authority, exercises control over territory of great extent or a number of territories or peoples through formal annexations or various forms of informal domination.. The chief instructed Oranyan to follow the snake until it stopped somewhere for seven days and disappeared into the ground. Afonja, étant lié par un serment et aussi désireux de ne pas tomber sous la malédiction d'un Alaafin précédent, fait que tout Aare Ona Kakanfo qui attaquait Iwere-Ile (sa maison paternelle) devait mourir misérablement, a refusé d'obtempérer. About 22% of the population lived in large areas with populations exceeding 100,000, and over 50% lived in cities made up of 25,000 or more people. Of the post Oyo empire Yoruba States, there is much more first-hand accounts given the increase of trade with Europeans and missionary proselytising missions. The people created a government that established its power over a vast empire. [28], The Oyo Empire was the only Yoruba state to adopt cavalry; it did so because most of its territory was in the northern savannah. Not long after the war was won, Oranmiyan had a son, Ajuwon Ajaka; much later Arabambi was born by the woman from Tapa (Nupe). It is believed that the name "Sango" was given by his maternal grandfather or he adopted it from the local name for the God of Thunder. Oyo Empire was Yoruba empire located in the western part of the present day Nigeria. Oranyan suivit les conseils et fonda Oyo là où le serpent s'arrêta. [35] Cavalry was the long arm of the Oyo Empire. Forces inside metropolitan Oyo were commanded by the Bashorun, leading member of the Oyo Mesi. The Yoruba continue to be the most urbanized African ethnic group today. Les expéditions de la fin du XVIe et du XVIIe siècle étaient entièrement composées de cavalerie. The Oyo Empire developed a highly sophisticated political structure to govern its territorial domains. Ils étaient cependant supervisés par Ajele. Peoples of the rain- and dry forest belt which runs across the southern part of West Africa made clearings for their villages and successfully grew crops such as yams, bananas, and oil palm kernels. During the colonial period, the Yorubas were one of the most urbanized groups in Africa. fondé en XVe siècle, l'Empire Oyo a grandi pour devenir l'un des plus grands Etats de 'Afrique de l'Ouest rencontrés par les explorateurs précoloniales. This was the only way to remove the Alaafin because he could not legally be deposed. [15] The origin of the cavalry is disputed; however, the Nupe, Borgu and Hausa in neighbouring territories also used cavalry and may have had the same historical source. Une fois donnés la calebasse ou les œufs de perroquet, l'Alaafin, son fils aîné l'Aremo et son conseiller personnel au sein de l'Oyo Mesi, l'Asamu, ont tous dû se suicider pour renouveler le gouvernement. [33], By 1680, the Oyo Empire spanned over 150,000 square kilometers. Many believe the decline of the Oyo empire had started as early as 1754 with the dynastic intrigues and palace coups sponsored by the Oyo Prime Minister Gaha. The town lies at the intersection of roads from Ibadan (40 miles [64 km] west), Ilesha, and Ondo. Known by the Ewe as Amedzofe, it is the more ancient ancestral home of the Ewe, Fon and other Gbe Vodoun groups prior to the expansion of the Oyo empire into their region around 10-1100 B.C Dans tous les cas, la famille royale était consacrée aux esprits du tonnerre (Jakuta) et à la guerre (Ogun). Cela peut avoir été adéquat au 15ème siècle, quand Oyo ne contrôlait que son cœur, mais pour faire et maintenir la conquête plus loin, la structure a subi plusieurs changements. The peace talks eventually broke down, and Oyo subsequently attacked Dahomey. 1994 Sex and the Empire That is No More : Gender and the Politics of Metaphor in Oyo Yoruba Religion, Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press. Il s'est développé grâce aux compétences organisationnelles et administratives exceptionnelles du peuple Yoruba, à la richesse tirée du commerce et à sa puissante cavalerie . Les guerriers du Dahomey, en revanche, n'avaient pas de cavalerie mais de nombreuses armes à feu. En retour, tous les sous-dirigeants devaient rendre hommage à l'Oba et renouveler leur allégeance lors de cérémonies annuelles. Cette page a été modifiée pour la dernière fois le 6 décembre 2020 à 15:26, This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article. Le principal représentant d'Oyo dans le couloir était l'Olu, dirigeant de la ville d'Ilaro. [22] These were agents appointed by the Alaafin of Oyo to oversee his interest and monitor commerce. Les Yoruba de la métropole d'Oyo étaient également hautement qualifiés dans l'artisanat et le travail du fer. Tributary leaders and provincial governors were responsible for collecting tribute and contributing troops under local generalship to the imperial army in times of emergency. Are the kings who had ruled one of the state des agents nommés par d'Oyo... 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